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PSU Research Review: An International Journal

ISSN: 2398-4007

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Journal Description

PSU Research Review is an international peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal publishing research on all areas of business, law, engineering and education with a particular focus on collaboration between researchers and practitioners. PRR is published open access in association with Prince Sultan University.

Signatory of DORA Member of Committee on Publication Ethics
Aims and scope

Prince Sultan University Research Review: An International Journal is targeted at academics and practitioners in both public and private sector organizations. The journal promotes the exchange of knowledge, experience and new ideas between researchers and practitioners and encourages a multi-disciplinary approach.

PRR publishes 3 issues per annum.

Issues covered by PSU Research Review: An International Journal include, but are not limited to:

• Business (accounting, finance, marketing, management)
• Computer Science
• Engineering
• Education
• Humanities (language and translation)
• Law

Key journal audiences

• Policymakers
• Managers
• Practitioners
• Consultants
• Researchers
• Government and public sector institutions
• Faculties in Higher Education Institutions
• Students in Higher Education Institutions

Open access

All articles published in PRR are published Open Access under a CCBY 4.0 licence. 

PRR is published by Emerald Publishing on behalf of Prince Sultan University. PRR is owned by Prince Sultan University. PRR is published under a platinum OA arrangement, in that all charges for publishing an OA article in PRR are funded by Prince Sultan University. There is no charge to the author.

Prince Sultan University.

Editorial team
  • Editor-in-Chief

    • Dr Mohammad Nurunnabi
      Prince Sultan University
  • Founding Editor

    • Ahmed S. Yamani
      Rector Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
  • Publisher

  • Content Editor

  • Honorary Consulting Editors

    • Emeritus Distinguished Professor Jean J. Boddewyn
      Baruch College, City University of New York, USA
    • Shiao-Shing Chen
      Office of International Affairs, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan
    • Professor Munther Dahleh
      Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA
    • Distinguished Professor James Guthrie
      Macquarie Business School, Macquarie University
    • Professor Graham Kendall
      University of Nottingham, UK
    • Professor S.P. Kothari
      MIT Sloan SSchool of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA
    • Professor V. Lynn Meek
      L H Martin Institute, University of Melbourne, Australia
    • Professor Frederic S. Mishkin
      Graduate School of Business, Columbia University, USA
    • Professor Lee D. Parker
      School of Accounting, RMIT University, Australia
    • Professor Philip Powell
      Pro Vice-Master (Enterprise and Innovation), Birkbeck, University of London, UKBirkbeck, University of London
    • Professor Gary John Previts
      WeatherHead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University, USA
    • Professor Fernando Reimers
      Harvard Graduate School of Education, Harvard University, USA
    • Professor Eugene Rogan
      St Antony's College Middle East Centre, University of Oxford, UK
    • Professor Frank E. Vogel
      Harvard Law School, Harvard University, USA
  • Senior Associate Editor

    • Associate Professor Dr Ayoib Che Ahmad
      School of Accountancy (SOA), College of Business (COB), Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM),Malaysia
    • Nadia Albu
      Deparrtment of Accounting, Auditing & Management, Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania
    • Professor Faris Ali
      Belfast School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Ulster University, UK
    • Professor Michael Alles
      Rutgers Business School, Rutgers University, USA
    • Associate Professor Husam Alwaer
      School of Social Sciences (Architecture + Urban Planning), University of Dundee, UK
    • Professor Mads Andenas
      Department of Private Law, University of Oslo, Norway
    • Professor Hamid R. Arabnia
      Department of Computer Science, University of Georgia, USA
    • Debes Bhattacharyya
      Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, New Zealand
    • Professor Ervin L. Black
      Chair, John T. Steed School of Accounting, The University of Oklahoma, USA
    • Emeritus Distinguished Professor Josef C. Brada
      Department of Economics, Arizona State University, USA
    • Professor Janina Brutt-Griffler
      Department of Educational Leadership and Policy, The State University of New York, USA
    • Professor Maria-Dolores Cano
      Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Spain
    • Liu Hong Chair
      School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore
    • Professor Han-Chieh Chao
      Chair, National Ilan University (NIU), Taiwan
    • Professor James Connelly
      School of Law and Politics, University of Hull, UK
    • Professor Louis De Koker
      La Trobe Law School, La Trobe University, Australia
    • Dr Theresa Dunne
      Director of Doctoral Studies, University of Dundee, UK
    • Professor Eva Egron-Polak
      Former Executive Director & Secretary General, International Association of Universities (IAU), France
    • Professor Ernesto Exposito
      Executive Director & Secretary General, International Association of Universities (IAU), France
    • Dr. Federica Farneti
      Department of Sociology and Business Law, University of Bologna, Italy
    • Professor Luciano Feo
      Department of Civil Engineering, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Italy
    • Anne Fortin
      Chair, Department of Accounting, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada
    • Distinguished Professor Susan Gass
      Department of Linguistics and Germanic, Slavic, Asian and African Languages, Michigan State University, USA
    • Professor Jennifer J. Griffin
      School of Business, The George Washington University, USA
    • Professor In-Mu Haw
      The Neeley School of Business, Texas Christian University, USA
    • Professor David Hay
      Auckland Business School, The University of Auckland, New Zealand
    • Professor Nigel Healey
      Vice-Chancellor, Fiji National University, Fiji
    • Prof. Dr. Khaled Hussainey
      Portsmouth Business School, Portsmouth University, UK
    • Professor Ahmet Can Inci
      Finance Department, Bryant University, USA
    • Professor Zahir Irani
      University of Bradford, UK
    • Professor Eva Jermakowicz
      College of Business, Tennessee State University, USA
    • David Lee Keiser
      Secondary and Special Education, Montclair State University, USA
    • Professor Laoucine Kerbache
      Dean of Department of Informations Systems and Operations Management, HEC Paris, Qatar
    • Professor Ian Kinchin
      Department of Higher Education, University of Surrey, UK
    • Professor Venkatesh Kodur
      Chairperson in the Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Michigan State University, USA
    • Professor Hiroyuki Kurimoto
      Board Chairman, Nagoya University of Commerce & Business (NUCB), Japan
    • Professor Maggie Liu
      The School of Business and Hospitality Management, Caritas Institute of Higher Education, Hong Kong
    • Associate Professor Mansoor Maitah
      Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic
    • Professor Michael R. Melton
      Director, Center for Advanced Financial Education, Roger Williams University, USA
    • Professor Hemant Merchant
      College of Business, University of South Florida St. Petersburg, USA
    • James S. Moy
      Dean, College of The Arts, University of South Florida, USA
    • Professor Kaoru Natsuda
      College of International Management, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Japan
    • Dr. Simon Norton
      Cardiff Business School, Cardiff University, UK
    • Professor Daniel O'Leary
      USC Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California, USA
    • Michèle Olivier
      Hull University Business School, University of Hull, UK
    • Dr. Zorica Crnjak Orel
      Scientific Counselor, The National Institute of Chemistry (NIC), Ljubljana, Slovenia
    • Carlos E. Orozco
      Department of Civil Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte (UNC Charlotte), USA
    • Professor Carlos Reimers
      School of Architecture & Planning, The Catholic University of America, USA
    • Professor Ali Selamat
      Director of ICT & Chief Information Officer, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
    • Professor Antonella Sorace
      School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK
    • Professor Katariina Stenberg
      Department of Teacher Education, University of Helsinki, Finland
    • Professor Barney Warf
      Department of Geography, University of Kansas, USA
    • Professor Simon N. M. Young
      The Department of Professional Legal Education, The University of Hong Kong, Parkside Chambers
    • Professor Mohamed Younis
      Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland Baltimore County, USA
    • Dr Sherali Zeadally
      University of Kentucky
    • Professor Fernand de Varennes
      Dean, Faculty of Law, Université de Moncton, Canada
    • Professor Kıymet Tunca Çalıyurt
      Department of Economics & Administrative Sciences, Trakya University, Turkey
  • Associate Editor

    • Dr. Abdelhakim Abdelhadi
      College of Engineering, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
    • Dr. Muhammad Asif
      College of Business Administration, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
    • Dr. Mohammad A. El Affendi
      Director MSE program, College of Computer & Information Sciences, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
    • Dr. Ahmed Sameh El- Sayed
      College of Computer & Information Sciences, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
    • Dr. Anis Kouba
      College of Computer & Information Sciences, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
    • Dr. Norshidah Mohamed
      College of Business Administration, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
    • Dr. Tanzila Saba
      College of Computer & Information Sciences, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
  • Book Review Editor

    • Dr. Rimah Alyahya
      Vice Rector / PSU Women Campus, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
  • Managing Editor

  • Marketing Director

  • Executive Board

    • Dr. Jamil Ahmad
      Vice Chancellor, Abasyn University, Pakistan
    • Professor Saad Al-Rwaita
      Vice-Rector, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
    • Dr. Mohamed Aljebreen
      Deputy Vice-Rector, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
    • Professor Nehmé Azoury
      Dean, Faculty of Business, Holy Spirit University of Kaslik (USEK), Lebanon
    • Professor Tian BELAWATI
      Former Rector, Universitas Terbuka, Indonesia
    • Professor Charles Richard Baker
      Department of Accounting & Law, Adelphi University, USA
    • Dr. Kazimierz Bilanow
      Managing, Director, IREG Observatory on Academic Ranking and Excellence, Belgium & Poland
    • Ms. Ola Doudin
      Cofounder & CEO BitOasis, UAE
    • Dr. Abdelhafeez M. Feda
      Vice-Rector, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
    • Blake Goud
      CEO, RFI Foundation, USA
    • Professor M. Kabir Hassan
      Department of Economics & Finance, University of New Orleans, USA
    • Chief Justice Dr. Michael Hwang S.C.
      Chief Justice (DIFC), Dubai International Financial Centre (DIFC) Courts, UAE
    • Noor Azizi Ismail
      Deputy Vice-Chancellor, Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), Malaysia
    • Michael Izza
      Chief Executive (ICAEW), The Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW), UK
    • Professor Neal Juster
      Deputy Vice-Chancellor, University of Glasgow, UK
    • Professor Datuk Rifaat Ahmed Abdel Karim
      Former CEO, International Islamic Liquidity Management Corporation (IILM), Malaysia
    • Professor Arun Kumar G
      Department of Mangement Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM), India
    • Ali Kutan
      Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
    • Dr. Timothy Mescon
      Executive Vice President & Chief Officer, EMEA (Europe, the Middle East, and Africa), AACSB International, Netherlands
    • Nadir A. Mohammed
      Country Director of the GCC, Middle East and North Africa, World Bank, USA
    • Dr. Eva-Maria Nag
      The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), Durham University, UK
    • Mr. Ashar M. Nazim
      Partner, Ernst & Young, Bahrain
    • Professor Angina Parekh
      Deputy Vice-Chancellor, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
    • Mr. Filippo Poli
      Research Director, European Financial Reporting Advisory Group (EFRAG), Belgium
    • Professor Shahrokh M. Saudagaran
      Dean, Milgard School of Business, University of Washington Tacoma, USA
    • Professor Steve G. Sutton
      PhD Director, University of Central Florida, USA
    • Honorary Professor Gail Taylor
      Director of International Textile Archives Department, Donghua University, China
    • Jeffrey C. Thomson
      President, IMA (Institute of Management Accountants), USA
    • Sheetal M. Walsh
      Founder and President, Shanti Life, UK
    • Professor Hugh Wilmott
      CASS Business School, City University London, UK
    • Professor Jürgen von Hagen
      Director, Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftspolitik, University of Bonn, Germany
  • Editorial Advisory Board

    • Professor Afifi Al-Akit
      Faculty of Theology and Religion, Worcester College, University of Oxford, UK
    • Dr. Abdullah Saghaier Al-Hussaini
      Dean, Deanship of Student Affairs, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
    • Professor Ibrahim M. Al-Jabri
      College of Industrial Management, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Saudi Arabia
    • Professor Sayel Saleem Ahmed Al-Ramadan
      Department of Accounting, University of Bahrain
    • Professor Wael Ebraheem Al-Rashed
      Department of Accounting, Kuwait University, Kuwait
    • Dr. Abdelhakim AlMajid
      Dean, College of Engineering, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
    • Dr. Ibrahim Alhudaithy
      College of Law, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
    • Dr. Mohamed Alkanhal
      Dean, College of Computer & Information Sciences, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
    • Dr. Saad Almosa
      Dean, CCollege of Business Administration, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
    • Dr. Khaled Almustafa
      Director - RIC, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
    • Dr. Muslim Amin
      Department of Management, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
    • Muhammad Usman Awan
      Institute of Quality & Technology Management, University of Punjab, Pakistan
    • Dr. Zubair Baig
      School of Science, Edith Cowan University, Australia
    • Dr. Maria Balatbat
      UNSW Business School, UNSW Australia
    • Dr. Nadeem Ahmad Bashir
      Department of Management, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
    • Professor Iraj Bashiri
      College of Liberal Arts, University of Minnesota, USA
    • Professor Qixin Cao
      Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
    • Professor Santiago Carbo-Valverde
      Bangor University
    • Professor Keith Case
      he Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, UK
    • Professor Eduardo Cerqueira
      Computer Science Department, Network Research Lab at UCLA/USA and Centre for Informatics and Systems of the University of Coimbra (CISUC)/Portugal
    • Professor Nihel Chabrak
      Professor of Accounting, College of Business and Economics, Department of Accounting, United Arap Emirates University, UAE
    • Emna Chickhaoui
      Vice Dean, College of Law, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
    • Professor Natalie Tatiana Churyk
      NIU College of Business, Northern Illinois University, USA
    • Anita Ciunova-Shuleska
      Department of Marketing, Ss Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Macedonia
    • Esperanza De La Vega
      Coordinator of Bilingual Teacher Pathway Program, Portland State University, USA
    • Dr. Abdelmohsen M. Desoky
      College of Business Administration, University of Bahrain, Bahrain
    • Professor Kevin Downing
      Director of the Institutional Research Office (IRO), City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    • Associate Professor John Dumay
      Macquarie University
    • Dr. Michel Ehrenhard
      Business Administration, University of Twente, Netherlands
    • Dr. Ahmed El-Masry
      Plymouth Business School, Plymouth University, UK
    • Professor Valerie C. Epps
      Department of Law, Suffolk University, USA
    • Ilenia Farina
      University of Naples “Parthenope”, Italy
    • Professor M. Nauman Farooqi
      Dean, Faculty of Social Sciences, Mount Allison University, Canada
    • Professor Aracéli Cristina de S. Ferreira
      Department of Accounting, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Brazil
    • Professor Graham Gal
      ISENBERG School of Management, University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA
    • Professor Michelle Gallant
      Associate Dean, Faculty of Law, University of Manitoba
    • Simon S. Gao
      The Business School, Edinburgh Napier University, UK
    • Dr. Fariza Hashim
      Vice Dean, College of Business Administration, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
    • Professor Zahirul Hoque
      Department of Accounting and Data Analytics, La Trobe Business School, La Trobe University, Australia
    • Professor Helen Irving
      Sydney Law School, The University of Sydney, Australia
    • Professor Dima Jamali
      Olayan School of Business, American University of Beirut, Lebanon
    • Professor Reva Joshee
      Chair of the Department of Theory and Policy Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Canada
    • Monzer Kahf
      Yarmouk University
    • Professor Rania Kamla
      Department of Accounting, Heriot-Watt University
    • Susan L. Karamanian
      Provost and Chief Academic Officer, The George Washington University, USA
    • Associate Professor Marimuthu Karuppiah
      School of Computing Science and Engineering(SCOPE), VIT University, India
    • Associate Professor Rihab Khalifa
      Department of Accounting, United Arab Emirates University (UAEU), UAE
    • Professor Hamid M. Khan
      Deputy Director, The Rule of Law Collaborative, University of South Carolina, USA
    • Professor Mozzafar Khan
      Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, USA
    • Professor Merouane Lakehal-Ayat
      Department of Finance, St. John Fisher College, USA
    • Peter Lanjouw
      School of Business and Economics, VU University Amsterdam, Netherlands
    • Professor Carlos Larrinaga
      University of Burgos
    • Professor Fawzi Laswad
      School of Accountancy, Massey University, New Zealand
    • Professor Raef Lawson
      Vice President, IMA (Institute of Management Accountants), USA
    • Dr. Zorica Bozhinovska Lazarevska
      Department of Economics, Ss.Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia
    • Dr. Catherine MacKenzie
      Homerton College, University of Cambridge, UK
    • Professor Hugo A. Macias
      Department of Accounting, Universidad de Medellín, Colombia
    • Professor Habib Mahama
      Department of Accounting, United Arab Emirates University (UAEU), UAE
    • Professor Beverly Dawn Metcalfe
      Suliman S. Olayan School of Business, American University of Beirut, Lebanon
    • Dr. Alia Mitchel
      Vice Dean, College of Humanities, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
    • Professor Daniel Mossé
      School of Computing & Information, University of Pittsburgh, USA
    • Dr. Rekha Nicholson
      trategic and International Management, University of the West of England (UWE Bristol), UK
    • Catherine Nickerson
      College of Business, Zayed Universit, UAE
    • Professor Collins Ntim
      Head of Department of Accounting, University of Southampton, UK
    • Professor Chris Patel
      Department of Accounting and Corporate Governance, Macquarie University, Australia
    • Dr. Rosa Penna
      Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, Italy
    • Dr. Brian Prasad
      Technical Director, Knowledge Solution, USA
    • Hani Abu Qdais
      Department of Civil Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan
    • Martin Quinn
      School of Business, University of Leicester
    • Associate Professor Abu Shiraz Rahaman
      Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, Canada
    • Dr. Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim
      Director, UTMSpace College, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
    • Professor Asheq Rahman
      Head of Department and Professor of Financial Accounting, The University of Auckland, New Zealand
    • Professor Paul Rouse
      Department of Accountancy, The University of Auckland, New Zealand
    • Professor Michael Hunter Schwartz
      Hastings College of the Law, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, USA
    • Professor Yusuf Sidani
      Olayan School of Business, American University of Beirut, Lebanon
    • Professor Konstantinos Syriopoulos
      College of Business, Zayed University, UAE
    • Professor Eric Tagliacozzo
      Department of History, Cornell University, USA
    • Associate Professor David Tuček
      Dean, Faculty of Management and Economics, Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Czech Republic
    • Professor Luis Eduard Velázquez Contreras
      Engineering College of the University of Sonora, University of Sonora (UNISON), Mexico
    • Professor Lubov Vladyková
      Head of Department, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, Slovakia
    • Professor Wan Khairuzzaman Wan Ismail
      Dean, International Business School (IBS), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
    • Mr. Stephen Warrington
      Director of Teaching, and Deputy Head of School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    • Nor'aini Yusof
      School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia
    • Dr. Ambika Zutshi
      Ambika Zutshi
    • Professor Vassili Joannides de Lautour
      Manchester Business School, Grenoble École de Management, France
    • Professor Andrea Klimková Pavol Jozef Šafárik
      Department of Applied Ethics, University in Košice, Slovakia
Author guidelines

Click here to submit to this journal

Before you start

Author responsibilities

Our goal is to provide you with a professional and courteous experience at each stage of the review and publication process. There are also some responsibilities that sit with you as the author. Our expectation is that you will:

  • Respond swiftly to any queries during the publication process.
  • Be accountable for all aspects of your work. This includes investigating and resolving any questions about accuracy or research integrity
  • Treat communications between you and the journal editor as confidential until an editorial decision has been made.
  • Read about our research ethics for authorship. These state that you must:
    • Include anyone who has made a substantial and meaningful contribution to the submission (anyone else involved in the paper should be listed in the acknowledgements).
    • Exclude anyone who hasn’t contributed to the paper, or who has chosen not to be associated with the research.

Research and publishing ethics

Our editors and employees work hard to ensure the content we publish is ethically sound. To help us achieve that goal, we closely follow the advice laid out in the guidelines and flowcharts on the COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics) website.

We have also developed our research and publishing ethics guidelines. If you haven’t already read these, we urge you to do so – they will help you avoid the most common publishing ethics issues.

A few key points:

  • Any manuscript you submit to this journal should be original. That means it should not have been published before in its current, or similar, form. Exceptions to this rule are outlined in our pre-print and conference paper policies.  If any substantial element of your paper has been previously published, you need to declare this to the journal editor upon submission. Please note, the journal editor may use Crossref Similarity Check to check on the originality of submissions received. This service compares submissions against a database of 49 million works from 800 scholarly publishers.
  • Your work should not have been submitted elsewhere and should not be under consideration by any other publication.
  • If you have a conflict of interest, you must declare it upon submission; this allows the editor to decide how they would like to proceed. Read about conflict of interest in our research and publishing ethics guidelines.
  • By submitting your work to Emerald, you are guaranteeing that the work is not in infringement of any existing copyright.

Third party copyright permissions

Prior to article submission, you need to ensure you’ve applied for, and received, written permission to use any material in your manuscript that has been created by a third party. Please note, we are unable to publish any article that still has permissions pending. The rights we require are:

  • Non-exclusive rights to reproduce the material in the article or book chapter.
  • Print and electronic rights.
  • Worldwide English-language rights.
  • To use the material for the life of the work. That means there should be no time restrictions on its re-use e.g. a one-year licence.

We are a member of the International Association of Scientific, Technical, and Medical Publishers (STM) and participate in the STM permissions guidelines, a reciprocal free exchange of material with other STM publishers.  In some cases, this may mean that you don’t need permission to re-use content. If so, please highlight this at the submission stage.

Please take a few moments to read our guide to publishing permissions to ensure you have met all the requirements, so that we can process your submission without delay.

Open access information

This is a sponsored open access journal, also referred to as platinum open access. Because it is published in partnership with an organisation, your article will be published open access, but you will not have to pay an APC (article processing charge) - publication is free. Your article will be published with a Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 user licence, which outlines how readers can reuse your work.

You can find out more about our open access routes and read our FAQs on our open research page. 

Find out about open

Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines

We are a signatory of the Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines, a framework that supports the reproducibility of research through the adoption of transparent research practices. That means we encourage you to:

  • Cite and fully reference all data, program code, and other methods in your article.
  • Include persistent identifiers, such as a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), in references for datasets and program codes. Persistent identifiers ensure future access to unique published digital objects, such as a piece of text or datasets. Persistent identifiers are assigned to datasets by digital archives, such as institutional repositories and partners in the Data Preservation Alliance for the Social Sciences (Data-PASS).
  • Follow appropriate international and national procedures with respect to data protection, rights to privacy and other ethical considerations, whenever you cite data. For further guidance please refer to our research and publishing ethics guidelines. For an example on how to cite datasets, please refer to the references section below.

Prepare your submission

Manuscript support services

We are pleased to partner with Editage, a platform that connects you with relevant experts in language support, translation, editing, visuals, consulting, and more. After you’ve agreed a fee, they will work with you to enhance your manuscript and get it submission-ready.

This is an optional service for authors who feel they need a little extra support. It does not guarantee your work will be accepted for review or publication.

Visit Editage

Manuscript requirements

Before you submit your manuscript, it’s important you read and follow the guidelines below. You will also find some useful tips in our structure your journal submission how-to guide.

Format

Article files should be provided in Microsoft Word format

While you are welcome to submit a PDF of the document alongside the Word file, PDFs alone are not acceptable. LaTeX files can also be used but only if an accompanying PDF document is provided. Acceptable figure file types are listed further below.

Article length / wordcount

Articles should be up to a maximum of 5500 words in length. This includes all text, for example, the structured abstract, references, all text in tables, and figures and appendices.

 

Please allow 280 words for each figure or table.

Article title

A concisely worded title should be provided.

Author details

The names of all contributing authors should be added to the ScholarOne submission; please list them in the order in which you’d like them to be published. Each contributing author will need their own ScholarOne author account, from which we will extract the following details:

  • Author email address.
  • Author name. We will reproduce it exactly, so any middle names and/or initials they want featured must be included.
  • Author affiliation. This should be where they were based when the research for the paper was conducted.

In multi-authored papers, it’s important that ALL authors that have made a significant contribution to the paper are listed. Those who have provided support but have not contributed to the research should be featured in an acknowledgements section. You should never include people who have not contributed to the paper or who don’t want to be associated with the research. Read about our research ethics for authorship.

Biographies and acknowledgements

If you want to include these items, save them in a separate Microsoft Word document and upload the file with your submission. Where they are included, a brief professional biography of not more than 100 words should be supplied for each named author.

Research funding

Your article must reference all sources of external research funding in the acknowledgements section. You should describe the role of the funder or financial sponsor in the entire research process, from study design to submission.

Structured abstract

All submissions must include a structured abstract, following the format outlined below.

These four sub-headings and their accompanying explanations must always be included:

  • Purpose
  • Design/methodology/approach
  • Findings
  • Originality

The following three sub-headings are optional and can be included, if applicable:

  • Research limitations/implications
  • Practical implications
  • Social implications


You can find some useful tips in our write an article abstract how-to guide.

The maximum length of your abstract should be 250 words in total, including keywords and article classification (see the sections below).

Keywords

Your submission should include up to 12 appropriate and short keywords that capture the principal topics of the paper. Our Creating an SEO-friendly manuscript how to guide contains some practical guidance on choosing search-engine friendly keywords.

Please note, while we will always try to use the keywords you’ve suggested, the in-house editorial team may replace some of them with matching terms to ensure consistency across publications and improve your article’s visibility.

Article classification

During the submission process, you will be asked to select a type for your paper; the options are listed below. If you don’t see an exact match, please choose the best fit:

  • Research Paper
  • Literature Review
  • Case Study
  • Conceptual Paper
  • Practitioner Paper
  • Book Review+D305

You will also be asked to select a category for your paper. The options for this are listed below. If you don’t see an exact match, please choose the best fit:

Research paper. Reports on any type of research undertaken by the author(s), including:

  • The construction or testing of a model or framework
  • Action research
  • Testing of data, market research or surveys
  • Empirical, scientific or clinical research
  • Papers with a practical focus

Viewpoint. Covers any paper where content is dependent on the author's opinion and interpretation. This includes journalistic and magazine-style pieces.

Technical paper. Describes and evaluates technical products, processes or services.

Conceptual paper. Focuses on developing hypotheses and is usually discursive. Covers philosophical discussions and comparative studies of other authors’ work and thinking.

Case study. Describes actual interventions or experiences within organizations. It can be subjective and doesn’t generally report on research. Also covers a description of a legal case or a hypothetical case study used as a teaching exercise.

Literature review. This category should only be used if the main purpose of the paper is to annotate and/or critique the literature in a particular field. It could be a selective bibliography providing advice on information sources, or the paper may aim to cover the main contributors to the development of a topic and explore their different views.

General review. Provides an overview or historical examination of some concept, technique or phenomenon. Papers are likely to be more descriptive or instructional (‘how to’ papers) than discursive.

Headings

Headings must be concise, with a clear indication of the required hierarchy. 

The preferred format is for first level headings to be in bold, and subsequent sub-headings to be in medium italics.

Notes/endnotes

Notes or endnotes should only be used if absolutely necessary. They should be identified in the text by consecutive numbers enclosed in square brackets. These numbers should then be listed, and explained, at the end of the article.

Figures

All figures (charts, diagrams, line drawings, webpages/screenshots, and photographic images) should be submitted electronically. Both colour and black and white files are accepted.

There are a few other important points to note:

  • All figures should be supplied at the highest resolution/quality possible with numbers and text clearly legible.
  • Acceptable formats are .ai, .eps, .jpeg, .bmp, and .tif.
  • Electronic figures created in other applications should be supplied in their original formats and should also be either copied and pasted into a blank MS Word document, or submitted as a PDF file.
  • All figures should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and have clear captions.
  • All photographs should be numbered as Plate 1, 2, 3, etc. and have clear captions.

Tables

Tables should be typed and submitted in a separate file to the main body of the article. The position of each table should be clearly labelled in the main body of the article with corresponding labels clearly shown in the table file. Tables should be numbered consecutively in Roman numerals (e.g. I, II, etc.).

Give each table a brief title. Ensure that any superscripts or asterisks are shown next to the relevant items and have explanations displayed as footnotes to the table, figure or plate.

References

All references in your manuscript must be formatted using one of the recognised Harvard styles. You are welcome to use the Harvard style Emerald has adopted – we’ve provided a detailed guide below. Want to use a different Harvard style? That’s fine, our typesetters will make any necessary changes to your manuscript if it is accepted. Please ensure you check all your citations for completeness, accuracy and consistency; this enables your readers to exploit the reference linking facility on the database and link back to the works you have cited through CrossRef. 

Emerald’s Harvard referencing style

References to other publications in your text should be written as follows:

  • Single author: (Adams, 2006)
  • Two authors: (Adams and Brown, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Adams et al., 2006) Please note, ‘et al' should always be written in italics.

A few other style points. These apply to both the main body of text and your final list of references.

  • When referring to pages in a publication, use ‘p.(page number)’ for a single page or ‘pp.(page numbers)’ to indicate a page range.
  • Page numbers should always be written out in full, e.g. 175-179, not 175-9.
  • Where a colon or dash appears in the title of an article or book chapter, the letter that follows that colon or dash should always be lower case.
  • When citing a work with multiple editors, use the abbreviation ‘Ed.s’.

At the end of your paper, please supply a reference list in alphabetical order using the style guidelines below. Where a DOI is available, this should be included at the end of the reference.

For books

Surname, initials (year), title of book, publisher, place of publication.

e.g. Harrow, R. (2005), No Place to Hide, Simon & Schuster, New York, NY.

For book chapters

Surname, initials (year), "chapter title", editor's surname, initials (Ed.), title of book, publisher, place of publication, page numbers.

e.g. Calabrese, F.A. (2005), "The early pathways: theory to practice – a continuum", Stankosky, M. (Ed.), Creating the Discipline of Knowledge Management, Elsevier, New York, NY, pp.15-20.

For journals

Surname, initials (year), "title of article", journal name, volume issue, page numbers.

e.g. Capizzi, M.T. and Ferguson, R. (2005), "Loyalty trends for the twenty-first century", Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 22 No. 2, pp.72-80.

For published 
conference proceedings

Surname, initials (year of publication), "title of paper", in editor’s surname, initials (Ed.), title of published proceeding which may include place and date(s) held, publisher, place of publication, page numbers.

e.g. Wilde, S. and Cox, C. (2008), “Principal factors contributing to the competitiveness of tourism destinations at varying stages of development”, in Richardson, S., Fredline, L., Patiar A., & Ternel, M. (Ed.s), CAUTHE 2008: Where the 'bloody hell' are we?, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Qld, pp.115-118.

For unpublished 
conference proceedings

Surname, initials (year), "title of paper", paper presented at [name of conference], [date of conference], [place of conference], available at: URL if freely available on the internet (accessed date).

e.g. Aumueller, D. (2005), "Semantic authoring and retrieval within a wiki", paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC), 29 May-1 June, Heraklion, Crete, available at: http://dbs.uni-leipzig.de/file/aumueller05wiksar.pdf (accessed 20 February 2007).

For working papers

Surname, initials (year), "title of article", working paper [number if available], institution or organization, place of organization, date.

e.g. Moizer, P. (2003), "How published academic research can inform policy decisions: the case of mandatory rotation of audit appointments", working paper, Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, Leeds, 28 March.

For encyclopaedia entries 
(with no author or editor)

Title of encyclopaedia (year), "title of entry", volume, edition, title of encyclopaedia, publisher, place of publication, page numbers.

e.g. Encyclopaedia Britannica (1926), "Psychology of culture contact", Vol. 1, 13th ed., Encyclopaedia Britannica, London and New York, NY, pp.765-771.

(for authored entries, please refer to book chapter guidelines above)

For newspaper 
articles (authored)

Surname, initials (year), "article title", newspaper, date, page numbers.

e.g. Smith, A. (2008), "Money for old rope", Daily News, 21 January, pp.1, 3-4.

For newspaper 
articles (non-authored)

Newspaper (year), "article title", date, page numbers.

e.g. Daily News (2008), "Small change", 2 February, p.7.

For archival or other unpublished sources

Surname, initials (year), "title of document", unpublished manuscript, collection name, inventory record, name of archive, location of archive.

e.g. Litman, S. (1902), "Mechanism & Technique of Commerce", unpublished manuscript, Simon Litman Papers, Record series 9/5/29 Box 3, University of Illinois Archives, Urbana-Champaign, IL.

For electronic sources

If available online, the full URL should be supplied at the end of the reference, as well as the date that the resource was accessed.

Surname, initials (year), “title of electronic source”, available at: persistent URL (accessed date month year).

e.g. Weida, S. and Stolley, K. (2013), “Developing strong thesis statements”, available at: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/1/ (accessed 20 June 2018)

Standalone URLs, i.e. those without an author or date, should be included either inside parentheses within the main text, or preferably set as a note (roman numeral within square brackets within text followed by the full URL address at the end of the paper).

For data

Surname, initials (year), title of dataset, name of data repository, available at: persistent URL, (accessed date month year).

e.g. Campbell, A. and Kahn, R.L. (2015), American National Election Study, 1948, ICPSR07218-v4, Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (distributor), Ann Arbor, MI, available at: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07218.v4 (accessed 20 June 2018)

Submit your manuscript

There are a number of key steps you should follow to ensure a smooth and trouble-free submission.

Double check your manuscript

Before submitting your work, it is your responsibility to check that the manuscript is complete, grammatically correct, and without spelling or typographical errors. A few other important points:

  • Give the journal aims and scope a final read. Is your manuscript definitely a good fit? If it isn’t, the editor may decline it without peer review.
  • Does your manuscript comply with our research and publishing ethics guidelines?
  • Have you cleared any necessary publishing permissions?
  • Have you followed all the formatting requirements laid out in these author guidelines?
  • Does the manuscript contain any information that might help the reviewer identify you? This could compromise the blind peer review process. A few tips:
    • If you need to refer to your own work, use wording such as ‘previous research has demonstrated’ not ‘our previous research has demonstrated’.
    • If you need to refer to your own, currently unpublished work, don’t include this work in the reference list.
    • Any acknowledgments or author biographies should be uploaded as separate files.
    • Carry out a final check to ensure that no author names appear anywhere in the manuscript. This includes in figures or captions.

You will find a helpful submission checklist on the website Think.Check.Submit.

The submission process

All manuscripts should be submitted through our editorial system by the corresponding author.

A separate author account is required for each journal you submit to. If this is your first time submitting to this journal, please choose the Create an account or Register now option in the editorial system. If you already have an Emerald login, you are welcome to reuse the existing username and password here.

Please note, the next time you log into the system, you will be asked for your username. This will be the email address you entered when you set up your account.

Don't forget to add your ORCiD ID during the submission process. It will be embedded in your published article, along with a link to the ORCiD registry allowing others to easily match you with your work.

Don’t have one yet? It only takes a few moments to register for a free ORCiD identifier.

Visit the ScholarOne support centre for further help and guidance.

What you can expect next

You will receive an automated email from the journal editor, confirming your successful submission. It will provide you with a manuscript number, which will be used in all future correspondence about your submission. If you have any reason to suspect the confirmation email you receive might be fraudulent, please contact our Rights team.

Post submission

Review and decision process

Each submission is checked by the editor. At this stage, they may choose to decline or unsubmit your manuscript if it doesn’t fit the journal aims and scope, or they feel the language/manuscript quality is too low.

If they think it might be suitable for the publication, they will send it to at least two independent referees for double blind peer review.  Once these reviewers have provided their feedback, the editor may decide to accept your manuscript, request minor or major revisions, or decline your work.

While all journals work to different timescales, the goal is that the editor will inform you of their first decision within 60 days.

During this period, we will send you automated updates on the progress of your manuscript via our submission system, or you can log in to check on the current status of your paper.  Each time we contact you, we will quote the manuscript number you were given at the point of submission. If you receive an email that does not match these criteria, it could be fraudulent and we recommend you email [email protected]

If your submission is accepted

Copyright

All accepted authors are sent an email with a link to a licence form.  This should be checked for accuracy, for example whether contact and affiliation details are up to date and your name is spelled correctly, and then returned to us electronically. If there is a reason why you can’t assign copyright to us, you should discuss this with your journal content editor. You will find their contact details on the editorial team section above.

Proofing and typesetting

Once we have received your completed licence form, the article will pass directly into the production process. We will carry out editorial checks, copyediting, and typesetting and then return proofs to you (if you are the corresponding author) for your review. This is your opportunity to correct any typographical errors, grammatical errors or incorrect author details. We can’t accept requests to rewrite texts at this stage.

When the page proofs are finalised, the fully typeset and proofed version of record is published online. This is referred to as the EarlyCite version. While an EarlyCite article has yet to be assigned to a volume or issue, it does have a digital object identifier (DOI) and is fully citable. It will be compiled into an issue according to the journal’s issue schedule, with papers being added by chronological date of publication.

How to share your paper

Visit our author rights page to find out how you can reuse and share your work.

To find tips on increasing the visibility of your published paper, read about how to promote your work.

Correcting inaccuracies in your published paper

Sometimes errors are made during the research, writing and publishing processes. When these issues arise, we have the option of withdrawing the paper or introducing a correction notice. Find out more about our article withdrawal and correction policies.

Need to make a change to the author list? See our frequently asked questions (FAQs) below.

Frequently asked questions

Is there a submission fee
for the journal?

The only time we will ever ask you for money to publish in an Emerald journal is if you have chosen to publish via the gold open access route. You will be asked to pay an APC (article processing charge) once your paper has been accepted (unless it is a sponsored open access journal). 

Read about our APCs

At no other time will you be asked to contribute financially towards your article’s publication. If you haven’t chosen gold open access and you receive an email which appears to be from Emerald, asking you for payment to publish, please contact our Rights team.

How can I become
a reviewer for a journal?

Please contact the editor for the journal, with a copy of your CV. You will find their contact details on the editorial team tab on this page.

Who do I contact if I want to find out which volume and issue my accepted paper will appear in?

Typically, papers are added to an issue according to their date of publication. If you would like to know in advance which issue your paper will appear in, please contact the content editor of the journal. You will find their contact details on the editorial team tab on this page. Once your paper has been published in an issue, you will be notified by email.

Who do I contact if I have
a query about my submission?

Please email the journal editor – you will find their contact details on the editorial team tab on this page. If you ever suspect an email you’ve received from Emerald might not be genuine, you are welcome to verify it with the content editor for the journal, whose contact details can be found on the editorial team tab on this page. Alternatively, you can email our Rights team.

Is my paper suitable
for the journal?

If you’ve read the aims and scope on the journal landing page and are still unsure whether your paper is suitable for the journal, please email the editor and include your paper's title and structured abstract. They will be able to advise on your manuscript’s suitability. You will find their contact details on the Editorial team tab on this page.

How do I make a change to the list of authors once the manuscript has been submitted?

Authorship and the order in which the authors are listed on the paper should be agreed prior to submission. If you need to make any changes to the author information once the paper is under review or has been accepted, we will look into your request and closely follow the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) authorship guidelines. We will also require a statement from each author confirming their agreement.

Indexing & rankings

This journal is abstracted and indexed by:

  • British Library
  • EDS (EBSCO)
  • Primo/Summons (ProQuest)
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • National Agency for the Evaluation of the University and Research Systems, Italy (ANVUR)
  • Cabell's Directories

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