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Harvard Reference Systemの使い方




下に挙げる 2 番目の例のように、著者名が文章に組み込まれるほうが自然な場合には、出版年のみがカッコ内に表示されます。姓と日付がカッコ内に表示される場合は、Emerald 方式によりカンマで区切ります。

The results (Vroom, 1960) were quite striking.

Several decades later participation became a key ingredient of several management theories, including those of Likert (1967), Maier (1970), and Hersey and Blanchard (1982).


著者が 2 人の場合 "and" (&ではない) でつなぎます。

Earlier (Vroom and Jago, 1988) we described a systematic evaluation ...

Vroom and Yetton (1973) studied this potential limitation.

著者が3 人以上の場合、" et al." (イタリック体)を用いて執筆者の名前を全部羅列するのを避けます

... the ability to respond intuitively and often very rapidly (Bar-Tel et al., 1999; Prietula and Simon, 1989; Schoemaker and Russo, 1993; Simon, 1997).

Crossan et al. (1999) stress that the subconscious is critical to understanding how people come to ...


Bar-tel, Y., Raviv, A. and Spitzer, A. (1999) ...
Crossan, M., Lane, H. and White, R. (1999) ...


Bar-tel, Raviv and Spitzer (1999)
Crossan, Lane and White (1999)




    "Holistic approaches rely on experience-based knowledge rather than on abstract knowledge ...
     and a search for the 'middle way' between opposing propositions". (Nisbett et al., 2001)

National culture is "perhaps the broadest social context within which negotiation can occur" (Carnevale, 1995, p. 310).



... the ability to respond intuitively and often very rapidly (Bar-Tel et al ., 1999; Prietula and Simon, 1989; Schoemaker and Russo, 1993; Simon, 1997).

The literature on cross-cultural negotiations is expanding at a rapid rate and scholars have begun to develop both generic frameworks for explaining the dynamics of cross cultural negotiations (Brett, 2000; Gelfand and Dyer, 2000; George et al ., 1998; Kumar, 1999a) as well as frameworks unique to a specific culture (Fang, 1997; Faure, 1998; Kumar, 1999b).


年代に 1999a、1999b というようにアルファベットをつけます。複数の参考文献が使用される場合、2000a, b のように表示します。

Such is the scale of improvement within less than a year that "they [the workers] don't call this the Bat Cave any more" (Burt, 2000e; Parsley, 2001a).

Between January and July 2000, 500,000 Focuses were sold worldwide and 300,000 of the sales were in Europe (Ford, 2000a, b).



... to unlock greater growth and competitiveness (European Commission, 1998).

... so that local organizations can help new and growing businesses (DTI, 2002).

2 番目の例では組織名がイニシャルで表示されていますが、正式名は参考文献リストで次のように表記します。

Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) (2002) ...


以下の 2 つの例のように、原則は冊子体の参考文献と全く同様です。正式な名称は最後にカギカッコで表示します。

Furthermore, a biased sample may be a desirable outcome, as data will be gathered from actual true users (Pitkow and Kehoel, 1997).
[Pitkow, J. and Kehoel, C. (1997), "GVU's WWW user surveys", available at:]

... contribute to the growth of sustainable development within the region (Leeds Metropolitan University, 2002).
[Leeds Metropolitan University (2002), "Business [email protected]", available at:]