Article withdrawal & correction
Your published work is considered a permanent version of record. Follow our guidelines if you need to edit or withdraw your work.
We believe in protecting the integrity of our content and the role publishers play in scholarly discussion. The articles and book chapters we publish are considered to be the 'version of record'; the permanent bibliographic 'minutes' of academic research. This version of record can only be edited, changed or withdrawn with good reason.
Withdrawal of an article
We follow the principles outlined in the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA)/International Publishers’ Association (IPA) joint statement on retraction or removal of journal articles from the web.
These make it clear that an article or chapter may only be removed from a publisher’s database if it:
- Infringes professional ethical codes such as the violation of the privacy of a research subject.
- Is subject to legal dispute.
- Includes the identification of false or inaccurate data that, if acted upon, would pose a serious health risk.
We retain the appropriate bibliographical citation of the removed content wherever possible (unless subject to legal dispute).
All published research is effectively a "snapshot" of a moment in time, and the version of record can’t be updated to reflect changes, for example new author affiliation or new findings.
However, we understand that sometimes errors are made during the research, writing and publishing stages. When these issues arise, we have the option of introducing one of the following correction notices.
This generally refers to a production error introduced during the publication process. If an erratum is issued, it will appear on the abstract of the online version of the paper and in the hard copy of the next volume or issue of the publication.
This generally refers to an author error or oversight made before the paper was submitted. If a corrigendum is issued, it will appear on the abstract of the online version of the paper and in the hard copy of the next volume or issue of the publication.
A retraction notice will be issued in serious cases of ethical misconduct or where the research is seriously flawed and misleading. In normal circumstances, the paper will remain in the online version of the journal or book. A retraction notice will appear on the online version of the paper and in the hard copy of the next volume or issue of the publication. Where possible, papers will remain electronically accessible but clearly state that the article has been retracted.
Note of clarification
A note of clarification will be used when a point needs to be emphasised or clarified in the text, but it does not constitute a correction. Please note that any correction has to be highlighted as a stated erratum, corrigendum or note of clarification, and the text cannot be amended. This is designed to make it clear to the reader that there have been changes to the text, which they might have cited or referred to in their subsequent research or practice.
Expression of concern
In cases where a conclusion is unclear or where we are unable to make a fair decision due to conflicts of interest or lack of information, we will publish an expression of concern regarding the paper. An expression of concern will appear on the online version of the paper at the abstract level, so it is visible to all readers, including non-subscribers.