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Implementing Open Innovation: Technological, Organizational and Managerial tools


Special issue call for papers from Business Process Management Journal

Guest Editors: Prof. Davide Aloini, Prof. Luisa Pellegrini, Prof. Valentina Lazzarotti, and Prof. Raffaella Manzini

Background and Motivation
The concept of Open Innovation (OI) has generated a great interest in the last decade (Chesbrough, 2003). Over time, Open Innovation Strategy was drawn as a “must” for many firms in different sectors. Implementing an open firm means defining a set of variables: the ‘who’ issue, i.e. with whom the collaboration should take place (Laursen and Salter, 2006), the ‘when’ issue, i.e. which phase(s) of the innovation process should be opened (Lazzarotti and Manzini, 2009), and the ‘how’ issue, i.e. how openness should be implemented. As regards the ‘how’, little attention has still been committed on the set of tools firms can use to support the implementation of OI and, hence, on how firms can create a positive environment that encourages people at leveraging existing technological capabilities outside the boundaries of the organization (Hung and Chou, 2013) or at capturing and benefiting from external sources of knowledge in order to enhance current technological developments (Huizing, 2011).

Building on literature on innovation and knowledge management, we define such set as the emergent or intentional system of technological (Information and Communication Technologies, ICT), managerial and organizational tools through which the firm influences the collaborative behavior of people inside the firm with the external partners, as well as the collaborative behavior of the partners along the innovation funnel, from the idea generation to the commercialization phase. Therefore the interpretive lens we propose in this special issue is three-fold: Technology, Organization and Management.

ICT has much to contribute because of the pivotal role of digital technologies in enabling OI initiatives. Preliminary studies were directed on the Free Open Source Software phenomenon (von Hippel and von Krogh, 2003), crowdsourcing platforms (Di Gangi and Wasko, 2009; Leimeister, 2009), web-enabled innovation brokers (Whelan et al., 2012), IT’s contribution to absorptive capacity (Chatterjee et al., 2002; Chircu and Kauffman, 2000), as well as new technologies for data mining, simulation, prototyping and visual representation supporting OI in new product development (Dogson et al., 2006).

Traditionally, Organizational Structure is considered having an important role in realizing OI (Beltz, 2011; Naqshbandi and Kaur, 2011; Huizingh, 2011). Researchers are now discussing the question of how organization structure theories can be coupled to the OI paradigm and which traditional concepts about organizational structure and organizing mechanism theories are in fact responsive to the needs of the open paradigm settings. Dimensions such as specialization, formalization and decentralization should be analyzed in order to investigate their influence on Open Innovation gains (Ihl et al., 2012).

Finally, Managerial issues, intended as the combination of routines, practices and incentives to support the OI implementation process, need to be further explored to ensure a greater chance of success (Giannopolu et al., 2011). Many organizations are still not entirely comfortable in these “open” collaborations and previous research on inter-organizational collaboration indicates a high risk of failure. Nevertheless, opening up an organization might compromise conventional steering and managerial tools might no longer apply as such as traditional management (Ollila and Elmquist, 2011).

The importance of the role of technological, organizational and managerial tools relies on the possibility of research to enhance a real impact on managerial practices for OI implementation and thus on firms’ performance. Researches on this issue should provide suggestions for academicians and practitioners on how an adequate mix of technological tools and solutions, organizational choices and managerial practices, might support the OI processes and in its turn the innovation outcomes.

The aim of this special issue is to expand and advance the knowledge about state of Open Innovation research, highlighting work that makes significant theoretical and empirical advances to our understanding of Technological, Organizational and Managerial tools of effective OI implementation.
 
Example topics for the special issue
Papers are invited for this special issue on any topic related to the role of Technology, Organization and Management in enabling Open Innovation. Both theoretical and especially empirical papers are welcome. Example topics include but are not limited to:
• The enablement role of Information Systems (IS) on Open Innovation models and related performance: Relation between IS and Open Innovation models; ICT in inter-organizational innovation systems such as Open Innovation communities, digital enabled social networks, role of social media, knowledge management systems, technology-enabled distributed Open Innovation teams, open collaboration systems; Innovative open-minded Information systems;
• The role of Organizational Structure on OI models and related performance: how structural dimensions such as specialization, formalization and decentralization affect gains from Open Innovation; which Organizational structures are more effective for realizing OI; analysis of contingency affective Organizational choice; how organizational structure theories can be coupled to the Open Innovation paradigm and which organizing processes are important on the Open Innovation transformation requirements of the firms.
• The role of Managerial practices in OI implementation effectiveness: when and why traditional management can fail in OI implementation, which managerial practices are most effective for successful OI and in which scenario; how contingency may affect managerial choices.
• Relationships, interconnections and interactions between Technology, Organizational Structure, and Managerial practices in implementation of Open Innovation models and effects on the related performance: how technological, organizational and managerial dimensions interact, which are the effects on OI implementation process and on the final gains.

Notes for Intending Authors
Submitted papers should not have been previously published nor be currently under consideration for publication elsewhere. All papers are refereed through a full peer review process (double blind). Submissions are done sending the paper to one of the guest editors.
Time Scale (tentative)
Deadline for submission: 31/10/2015
Review Deadline: 31/12/2015
Notification of Acceptance: 31/01/2016
Deadline for Revised Papers: 31/03/2016
Final Decision: 31/05/2016
Publication Special Issue: December 2016

Special Issue Guest Editors
Prof. Davide Aloini, Department of Energy, Systems, Territory and Construction Engineering, University of Pisa, Italy
Email: [email protected]
Prof. Luisa Pellegrini, Department of Energy, Systems, Territory and Construction Engineering, University of Pisa, Italy
Email: [email protected]
Prof. Valentina Lazzarotti, School of Industrial Engineering, LIUC University, Castellanza, Italy
Email: [email protected]
Prof. Raffaella Manzini, School of Industrial Engineering, LIUC University, Castellanza, Italy
Email: [email protected] 

References:
Abouzeedan, A., and Hedner T. (2013), Organization structure theories and open innovation paradigm, World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 9 (1), 6-27.
Beltz, L. (2011) organizational structures for open innovation, http://www.15inno.com/2011/09/02/organizationalstructures/
Chatterjee, D., Pacini, C., and Sambamurthy, V. (2002). “The Shareholder Wealth and Trading Volume Effects of Information Technology Infrastructure Investments,” Journal of Management Information Systems, 19 (2), 7-42.
Chesbrough, H. (2003), Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.
Chircu, A. M., and Kauffman, R. J. (2000) “Limits to Value in Electronic Commerce-Related IT Investments,” Journal of Management Information Systems, 17 (2), 59-80.
Dahlander L., Frederiksen L. and Rullani F. (2008), “Online Communities and Open Innovation”, Industry and Innovation, 15 (2), 115-123.
Di Gangi, P. and Wasko, M. (2009). “Steal my Idea! Organizational Adoption of User Innovations from a User Innovation Community: A Case Study of Dell IdeaStorm. Decision Support Systems, 48, 303–312.
Dodgson, M., Gann, D. and Salter, A. (2006), The role of technology in the shift towards open innovation: the case of Procter & Gamble. R&D Management, 36: 333–346. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9310.2006.00429.x
Giannopoulou, E., Yström, A. and Ollila, S. 2011. Turning Open Innovation into Practice: Open Innovation Research through the Lens of Managers, International Journal of Innovation Management, 15 (3), 505–524.
Huizingh, E.K.R.E. (2011) “Open innovation: State of the art and future perspectives”, Technovation, 31 (1), 2-9.
Hung, K., Chou, C. (2013), “The impact of open innovation on firm performance: The moderating effects of internal R&D and environmental turbulence”, Technovation, 33 (10-11), 368-380.
Ihl, C. and Piller, F.T., and Wagner, P. (2012), “Organizing for Open Innovation: Aligning Internal Structure with External Knowledge Search”, (October 20, 2012). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2164766 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2164766
Leimeister, J. M., Huber, M., Bretschneider, U. and Krcmar, H. (2009), “Leveraging Crowdsourcing: Activation-Supporting Components for IT-Based Ideas Competition”, Journal of Management Information Systems, 26 (1), 197–224.
Mortara L., Napp J.J., Slacik I., and Minshall T. (2009),” How to implement open innovation: Lessons from studying large multinational companies”, Centre for Technology Management, © Institute for Manufacturing 2009.
Naqshbandi, M. and Kaur, S. (2011), “A study of Organizational Citizenship Behaviours, Organizational Structures and Open Innovation”, International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2 (6), 182-193.
Ollila, S. and Elmquist, M. (2011), “Managing Open Innovation: Exploring Challenges at the Interfaces of an Open Innovation Arena”, Creativity and Innovation Management, 20: 273–283.
von Hippel, E and von Krogh, G. (2003). “Open Source Software and the Private-Collective Innovation Model: Issues for Organization Science”. Organization Science, 14(2), 209–213, 2003.
Whelan, E., Golden, W. and Donnellan, B (forthcoming). “Digitising the R&D Social Network; Revisiting the Technological Gatekeeper”, Information Systems Journal.