The Harvard reference system, also known as the author-date system, is Emerald's approved system of citing other works. A distinguishing feature of the system is that in the body of the text, the cited work is given a simple parenthetical reference as follows:
"While information sharing between the private and public sector has improved since 9/11, sharing of information requires additional enhancements (Dacey, 2002)."
"Although much recent research has focused on the importance of long-term strategic relationships (Morgan and Hunt, 1994; Wilson, 1995)."
The quoted work will then be listed in full, in alphabetical order, in a section entitled "References" at the end of the article.
References should be used whenever you use a direct quotation from another author, also when you are quoting someone else's opinion or research. Sometimes, the reference may be direct, as in the second example, at others it may be indirect, as in the first, when the author is acknowledging that he or she has taken the statement from someone else's work.