Open research FAQs
Here, we have answered some frequently asked questions about open research. Get in touch if you have any further questions.
Why do I have to pay an article, book or chapter processing charge (APC/BPC/CPC)?
There are costs involved in publishing content; for example, editorial systems, production (such as typesetting and sub-editing) and hosting (including perpetual archiving through the LOCKSS, CLOCKSS and Portico schemes). An article processing charge (APC), chapter processing charge (CPC) or book processing charge (BPC) cover those costs.
Please note, payment of an APC, BPC or CPC is independent of and holds no bias over the editorial and peer review processes operated by Emerald Open Research, journal and book teams.
What does the APC/BPC/CPC cover?
We’re committed to supporting authors in telling the full story of their research, its impact, and championing change in research assessment culture.
We also ensure that every author has a pathway to publish openly, whatever their circumstances, including a zero-embargo green policy, a programme of fully open platinum journals and our flagship fully open platform – Emerald Open Research – aligned to the UN Sustainable Development Goals.
When an author publishes their work open access in one of our hybrid subscriptions or an un-sponsored open access title, the cost of publication is met via a charge referred to as an Article Processing Charge (APC). This covers the cost of turning a manuscript into a published article and dissemination to the widest audience. It is usually paid by the funder or institution.
You can check if we have a transformative agreement with your institution in our Funded APCs section.
Our APC covers:
- Editorial checks and improvements to your article before publication.
- Systems to facilitate the peer review process that enhance and validate your research through feedback from experts in the field.
- Direct support for you throughout the peer review process and publishing journey.
- Typesetting and tagging of your research to ensure it’s searchable and discoverable in order to maximise its reach once published.
- The aggregation, abstracting and indexing of your research so it’s always easy to find and access. We work closely with Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest, EBSCO and more. Further information can be found in our Resources for Discovery section.
- Showcasing your work on a platform that reaches the broadest audience and offers a great user experience. We significantly invest in our technology and platforms to make the research easy to find and read.
- The dissemination, marketing and awareness of research to wider audiences and investment in campaigns and initiatives to promote your research and maximise its reach.
- The support of low and middle income countries by offering financial provision through a waiver scheme.
- Preservation of your work for years to come through our archive and preservation connections with Portico, LOCKSS and CLOCKSS.
- Adherence to the highest publishing standards and best practice through our membership of COPE, the Committee on Publishing Ethics and follow the principles laid out in its Core Practice.
In addition, our journal editors are supported by teams and systems including permissions and ethical concerns, detailed reporting, conferences, and much more. These activities are currently supported by our subscription model.
I don't have an OA mandate, but my co-author does. What do we do?
Your co-author will need to contact their institutional administrator to check the requirements of their mandate.
The person who has a mandate and needs to pay an APC, BPC or CPC must be designated the corresponding author at the point of submission in order to receive the invoice.
What happens if I have a mandate, but no publication funds are available?
If a mandate is in place but funding is not available to pay an APC, you may deposit the AAM/post-print of your article in your institutional repository or website. For a full outline of our policy on self-archiving please see our green open access policy.
Alternatively, a number of organisations have established partnerships with us to cover the cost of publishing an agreed number of gold open access articles from their regions.
In addition, we are able to waive the publication charge to support publication of research from low or lower-middle income countries in our fully open access journals and on Emerald Open Research. See our APC waiver policy for more information.
Do I have to publish my research open access?
Authors who have received direct funding with a mandate may be obliged to make the resulting research openly accessible. It may be worth consulting with your funding body about the mandate appropriate to your research.
Under what circumstances can APCs be waived or discounted?
We have established partnerships with institutions and national consortia bodies to cover the cost of publishing an agreed number of gold open access articles for their organisations. You can check your eligibility on our Funded article processing charges page.
Corresponding authors based in countries classified by the World Bank as having low or lower-middle income may apply for a full or partial waiver to publish in fully open access Emerald journals or on Emerald Open Research. For further details, including information on how to apply, please see our APC waiver policy.
How much is the open access article processing charge (APC)?
We have a single rate article processing charge (APC) for all our hybrid and fully open journals.
Emerald Open Research APCs
The APC is a fixed charge, depending on article length:
- Fewer than 5,000 words - US$1,200*
- 5,000-8,000 words - US$1,500*
- 8,000-15,000 words - US$2,500*
We will also accept articles longer than 15,000 words; the APCs for these will be based on the word count.
We have established partnerships with national consortia to offer a number of APC vouchers for journals and Emerald Open Research. To check your eligibility, visit the funded APC page. In addition, corresponding authors from countries classified by the World Bank as having low or lower-middle incomes may apply for a full or partial APC waiver.
* Under the UK VAT guidelines, VAT at the standard rate of 20% will be added for any non-business customers in the UK and other EU countries. Business customers from outside the UK who can provide a valid VAT registration number will not be charged 20% VAT. Non-business customers outside of the EU will be outside the scope of UK VAT.
How much is the book processing charge (BPC)?
CCBY 4.0 (GBP)
CCBY 4.0 (USD)
CCBY 4.0 (EUR)
Under the UK VAT guidelines, VAT at the standard rate of 20% will be added for any non-business customers in the UK and other EU countries. Business customers from outside the UK who can provide a valid VAT registration number will not be charged 20% VAT. Non-business customers outside of the EU will be outside the scope of UK VAT.
How much is the chapter processing charge (CPC)?
The CPC is a fixed charge, depending on chapter length:
- Fewer than 5,000 words - US$1,200*
- 5,000-8,000 words - US$1,500*
- 8,000-15,000 words - US$2,500*
* Under the UK VAT guidelines, VAT at the standard rate of 20% will be added for any non-business customers in the UK and other EU countries. Business customers from outside the UK who can provide a valid VAT registration number will not be charged 20% VAT. Non-business customers outside of the EU will be outside the scope of UK VAT. Prices are reviewed on an annual basis and are subject to change.
Do I have to pay tax on the APC/CPC/BPC?
Under the UK VAT guidelines, VAT at the standard rate of 20% will be added for any non-business customers in the UK and other EU countries.
Business customers from outside the UK who can provide a valid VAT registration number will not be charged 20% VAT. Non-business customers outside of the EU will be outside the scope of UK VAT.
Do you ever refund APCs?
What licence options are available when publishing OA?
For all gold OA content published in books, journals and on Emerald Open Research, we offer one of the most liberal of the Creative Commons licences – the Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0). As long as readers abide by the licence conditions (for example, give appropriate credit), they can:
- Copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
- Adapt the material as required, for any purpose, both commercial and non-commercial
What funding agreements are available to help researchers publish open access?
A number of organisations have established partnerships with us to cover the cost of an agreed number of gold open access articles from their regions.
Corresponding authors based in countries classified by the World Bank as having low or lower-middle income are eligible to publish in fully open access Emerald journals or on Emerald Open Research. For further details, including information on how to apply, please see our APC waiver policy.
If I’ve already published an article in a subscription journal, can I still make it gold open access?
We allow authors to change the OA status of their article post-publication. Requests need to be made within 3 months of official publication or within the same volume year, whichever period is the longest.
How do I find an OA journal to submit to?
You can filter on OA journals using our journal search function. You will also find more information on our open research page.
How do I submit to an open access journal?
If you’ve chosen a fully open access title, the process is almost identical to that followed for any other journal submission: you can find a step-by-step journal submission guide on our author pages. However, if you’ve chosen a hybrid journal (which also publishes non-OA articles), at the point of submission, you will need to indicate that you want to publish gold OA in the journal’s ScholarOne submission system.
How do I submit to Emerald Open Research?
You will find detailed information on the Emerald Open Research platform.
How do you ensure that subscribers don’t pay to access OA articles published in hybrid journals?
We are committed to ensuring that customers never pay twice for the same content. Details of how we prevent this can be found in our double dipping policy.
What is your policy on data sharing?
We actively encourage data sharing. For more detail, view our open data policy.
What is the difference between a hybrid and a fully open access journal?
All the content in fully open access journals is published gold OA, i.e. it is immediately and freely available to readers. Hybrid journals contain a mix of gold OA articles and subscription content. While the gold OA articles are immediately and freely available, the subscription content can only be accessed by paying customers. For more information on the various journal models, visit <How to publish open access in our journals>.
What is the difference between gold and green OA?
Gold open access refers to making the version of record (i.e. the final, publisher’s typeset PDF), freely and immediately available to read and reuse upon publication. This is made possible through the payment of an APC (article processing charge) or BPC (book processing charge) or CPC (chapter processing charge) by the author, their funder, or their institution.
In the case of Emerald, green open access, also known as self-archiving, allows authors to share the author accepted manuscript, or AAM, via certain online repositories or platforms as soon as the work has been published, without embargo. That version is then freely and immediately available to read.
For more information on green and gold OA, visit Our open research policies page.
Is open access content peer reviewed?
All our content published open access, whether via the green or gold OA route, is fully and rigorously peer-reviewed.
The payment of an APC/BPC for gold OA is independent of, and holds no bias over, the editorial and peer review processes operated by the Emerald Open Research, journal and book teams.
How can I find open access articles?
You can view, sort, filter and download all of our content published via the open access route on this dedicated Emerald Insight page.
What is the copyright policy for open access content?
All gold open access content (where an APC or BPC has been paid or a voucher exchanged) is automatically published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0), which allows anyone to share, distribute and adapt the content for both commercial and non-commercial purposes.
This licence is compliant with all existing funder and institutional mandates.
For green open access content (where the author accepted manuscript (AAM) is posted on certain repositories) we offer two options: see our green open access policy for further details.
How do I publish an open access book?
When you submit your proposal for the book to the editorial team, all you need to do is add a note making it clear you are interested in publishing the book open access if it is accepted.
View our open research policies
Read about our gold and green open access policies, processing charges and licensing.
Publish open access with us
Discover how you can publish open access in our books and journals.
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