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How to... implement grounded theory

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Conclusion and references

Conclusion

GT is a powerful qualitative research approach which has the capacity to see people as living actors in their everyday environment. As such, it is a particularly useful tool for any study which observes, and tries to account for, human behaviour. Because much of management is about how people behave in complex organizations, it can be a valuable tool for management research.

It can also provide a robust way of handling data, and developing theory. The flaws noted by Seldén (above) have also been noted, and to some extent addressed, by the development of GT since its first use. Any researcher using GT, however, would do well to follow Jones and Noble’s advice about procedure, and being explicit about the particular school they follow.

References

Bakir, A. and Bakir, V. (2006), "Unpacking complexity, pinning down the 'elusiveness' of strategy: A grounded theory study in leisure and cultural organizations", Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, Vol. 1 No. 3, pp. 152-172.

Daengbuppha, J., Hemmington, N. and Wilkes, K. (2006), "Using grounded theory to model visitor experiences at heritage sites: Methodological and practical issues", Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, Vol. 9 No. 4, pp. 367-388.

Douglas, D. (2006), "Intransivities of managerial decisions: a grounded theory case", Management Decision, Vol. 44 No. 2, pp. 259-275.

Elharidy, A.M., Nicholson, B. and Scapens, R.W. (2008), "Using grounded theory in interpretive management accounting research", Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 139-155.

Ellis, D. (1987), “The derivation of behavioural model for information retrieval system design”, PhD thesis, Department of Information Studies, University of Sheffield, Sheffield.

Geiger, S. and Turley, D. (2003), "Grounded theory in sales research: an investigation of salespeople’s client relationships", Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, Vol. 18 Nos. 6/7, pp. 580-594.

Goddard, A. (2004), "Budgetary practices and accountability habitus: A grounded theory", Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, Vol. 17 No. 4, pp. 543-577.

Goulding, C. (2005), "Grounded theory, ethnography and phenomenology: A comparative analysis of three qualitative strategies for marketing research", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 39 Nos. 3/4, pp. 294-308.

Gurd, B. (2008), "Remaining consistent with method? An analysis of grounded theory research in accounting", Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 122-138.

Jones, R. and Kriflik, G. (2006), "Subordinate expectations of leadership within a cleaned-up bureaucracy: A grounded theory study", Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 19 No. 2, pp. 154-172.

Jones, R. and Noble, G. (2007), "Grounded theory and management research: a lack of integrity?", Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, Vol. 2 No. 2, pp. 84-103.

Lakshman, C. (2007), "Organizational knowledge leadership: a grounded theory approach", Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 28 No. 1, pp. 51-75.

Macrì, D.M., Tagliaventi, M.R. and Bertolotti, F. (2002), "A grounded theory for resistance to change in a small organization", Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 15 No. 3, pp. 292-310.

Mansourian, Y. (2006), "Adoption of grounded theory in LIS research", New Library World, Vol. 107 Nos. 9/10, pp. 386-402.

McKnight, M. (2007), "A grounded theory model of on-duty critical care nurses' information behavior: The patient-chart cycle of informative interactions", Journal of Documentation, Vol. 63 No. 1, pp. 57-73.

Partington, D. (Ed) (2002), "Grounded theory" in Essential Skills for Management Research, Sage Publications, London.

Pauleen, P.J., Corbitt, B. and Yoong, P. (2007), "Discovering and articulating what is not yet known: Using action learning and grounded theory as a knowledge management strategy", The Learning Organization, Vol. 14 No. 3, pp. 222-240.

Seldén, L. (2005), "On Grounded theory – with some malice", Journal of Documentation, Vol. 61 No. 1, pp. 114-129.

Sternquist, B. and Zhengyi, C. (2006), "Food retail buyer behaviour in the People's Republic of China: a grounded theory model", Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, Vol. 9 No. 3, pp. 243-265.

Wastell, D.G. (2001), "Barriers to effective knowledge management: Action research meets grounded theory", Journal of Systems and Information Technology, Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 21-36.

Main textbooks on GT

Glaser, B. (1978), Theoretical Sensitivity: Advances in the Methodology of Grounded Theory, Sociology Press, Mill Valley, CA.

Glaser, B. (1992), Basics of Grounded Theory Analysis. Emergence vs Forcing, Sociology Press, Mill Valley, CA.

Glaser, B. (1998), Doing Grounded Theory: Issues and Discussions, Sociology Press, Mill Valley, CA.

Glaser, B. and Strauss, A. (1967), The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research, Aldine Publishing Co., Chicago, IL.

Strauss, A.L. (1987), Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Strauss, A.L. and Corbin, J. (1990), Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Strauss, A.L. and Corbin, J. (1998), Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Theory, 2nd ed., Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.