The body of the paper is where you recount the interesting facts of the research, after you have set the scene and before you sum up the latter's implications.John A. Sharp and Keith Howard, in The Management of a Student Research Project (Gower, 2nd ed., 1996, p. 195), propose the following logical order for a research report:
A similar approach could be taken in a research article.
Emerald articles containing research usually follow a similar structure:
It is important to remember that an article is not the same as a dissertation: you should not cite all possible references on the topic but only those that are relevant to your research or approach. The literature review is not exhaustive; it is part of the setting of context. Bear in mind the following:
A common approach is to use the literature to develop a series of hypotheses, which are in turn used to develop a new framework or as a determiner of the research objective.
"Children's visual memory of packaging" (James U. McNeal and F. Ji Mindy, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 20 No. 3) is an example of an article which takes such an approach.
If you have done empirical research, you need to state your methodology clearly and under a separate heading. The methodology should:
Focus on telling the main story, stating the main stages of your research, the methods used, the influences that determined your approach, why you chose particular samples, etc. Additional detail can be given in Appendices.
Efthymios Constantinides, in "Influencing the online consumer's behaviour: the Web experience" (Internet Research, Vol. 14 No. 2), presents the results of a review of the issue of online customer behaviour from 48 academic papers. He describes the majority characteristics in terms of time of publication, journal, etc. rather than giving a detailed list.
"Some moderating effects on the service quality-customer retention link" (Chatura Ranaweera and Andy Neely, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 23 No. 2), describes the stages in research, the methods (including prior studies and their impact on use of the methods), the sample and how it was selected, and a brief description of the instrument (greater detail is given in the Appendix). Again, the focus is on the main details in so far as they lend weight to the credibility of the research.
Clyde A. Warden et al., in "Service failures away from home: benefits in intercultural service encounters" (International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 14 No. 4), describe the pretest, including the research that influenced the approach, and the actual survey, with essential details of the instrument, measure, and participants.
James U. McNeal and F.Ji Mindy, in "Children's visual memory of packaging" (Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 20 No. 3), describe the two studies they did to test the hypotheses developed through their literature survey. The first was a content analysis of cereal packets; the method of determining the packages is described, as is the coding criteria for content analysis. The second was a study of children drawing cereal boxes; the rationale for use of this technique is given, and the sample, procedure and coding approach are all described.
In the case of a theoretical paper, where you are not actually reporting on research which you did, but perhaps putting together other people's research and developing it into a hyphothesis or framework, you will still need some sort of section on methodology which details the criteria you used in selecting your material. Alternatively, you will need to show how researches in literature lead you to derive new conclusions.
As with the methodology, focus on the essentials, the main facts and those with wider significance, rather than giving great detail on every statistic in your results. Again, tell the main story: what are the really significant facts that emerge? Your section on results may well include one on discussion of the significance of the findings.
Efthymios Constantinides, in "Influencing the online consumer's behaviour: the Web experience" (Internet Research, Vol. 14 No. 2), summarizes the main issues of web experience for the online consumer under the main headings which they found to be important in the literature, in such a way both researcher and practitioner can get a good idea of the main themes.
In "Some moderating effects on the service quality-customer retention link" (Chatura Ranaweera and Andy Neely, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 23 No. 2), the authors describe their results, and the statistical tests they ran, in sufficient detail to give several pages of discussion on their results.
Clyde A. Warden et al., in "Service failures away from home: benefits in intercultural service encounters" (International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 14 No. 4), start their discussion of results by stating what they included in the analysis – only those service failures that were equally represented in both cultural settings. The statistical tests (ANOVA, Chi-square) are discussed in relation to how they impact on the study's overall objectives. The results are linked back to the hypotheses.
James U. McNeal and F. Ji Mindy, in "Children's visual memory of packaging" (Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 20 No. 3), present the results of their study summarized according to relevance to visual memory. There is also an extensive discussion section.
The purpose of an appendix is to contain material which is important to give a full understanding of the topic of the paper, but which is too cumbersome to be given in the text; to do so would disrupt the reader's train of thought. If material is relatively short, it can be integrated into the text. If in doubt, study the examples given, and also other examples from the journal you are hoping to publish in.
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